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PR01884

Identifier
MALPROTEIN  [View Relations]  [View Alignment]  
Accession
PR01884
No. of Motifs
4
Creation Date
02-APR-2003
Title
Myelin and lymphocyte protein family
Database References
Literature References
1. FRANK, M.
MAL, a proteolipid in glycosphingolipid enriched domains: functional
implications in myelin and beyond.
PROG.NEUROBIOL. 60(6) 531-544 (2000).
 
2. CHEONG, K.H., ZACCHETTI, D., SCHNEEBERGER, E.E. AND SIMONS, K.
VIP17/MAL, a lipid raft-associated protein, is involved in apical transport
in MDCK cells.
PROC.NATL.ACAD.SCI.U.S.A. 90 6242-6248 (1999).
 
3. MILLAN, J. AND ALONSO, M.A.
MAL, a novel integral membrane protein of human T lymphocytes, associates
with glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and Src-like tyrosine
kinases.
EUR.J.IMMUNOL. 28(11) 3675-3684 (1998).

Documentation
Myelin is a product of myelinating cells: Schawnn cells in the peripheral
nervous system (PNS) and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system
(CNS). The processes of these myelinating cells wrap around axon segments    
to form a sheath. This sheath possesses insulating properties, allowing 
rapid propagation of action potentials (the electrical signal propagated by 
nerve cells) between the myelinating cell intervening nodes. Without myelin
insulation, axons would need a 10-30-fold increase in diameter to achieve
comparable conduction velocities.
 
At the onset of myelination, during development, large amounts of myelin-
specific lipids and proteins are synthesised and transported to the
developing myelin sheath. The major protein component of PNS and CNS
myelin differs between the 2 nervous systems. However, some of the minor
protein components, including the 4 transmembrane (TM)-domain-containing
myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL), are found in both systems. Outside
the nervous system, MAL is also found in T-cells and some epithelial cells
(e.g., kidney, stomach and thyroid) [1].
 
Glycosphingolipids are enriched in both epithelial cells and myelin, and 
are believed to decrease the permeability of lipid membranes to small 
molecules and increase the ability for membrane curvature. MAL co-purifies 
with glycosphingolipids in detergent-insoluble domains, suggesting a 
possible interaction. In Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, MAL is 
found mainly in transport vesicles, and recent studies suggest that MAL is 
required for efficient vesicular transport of proteins across apical cell 
membranes [2]. In myelinating cells, MAL appears to play a similar role, 
interacting with glycosphingolipids to decrease membrane permeability; 
however, here this property most likely manifests itself as an improved 
insulating ability of the myelin [1]. In lymphocytes, however, MAL appears 
to act as a TM-linker protein in T-cell signal transduction, linking the 
cell surface glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchored protein CD59 to the 
intracellular tyrosine kinase Lck [3].
 
MALPROTEIN is a 4-element fingerprint that provides a signature for the
myelin and lymphocyte protein family. The fingerprint was derived from an
initial alignment of 5 sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved
regions spanning the full alignment length: motifs 1 and 2 lie in the 1st
and 2nd TM domains, respectively; motif 3 spans the C-terminal portion of
the 1st cytoplasmic loop and the N-terminal portion of the 3rd TM domain;
and motif 4 lies in the 4th TM domain. Two iterations on SPTR40_20f were
required to reach convergence, at which point a true set comprising 11
sequences was identified. A single partial match was also found, Q9D2R2,
which lacks a substantial portion of TM domains 1-3.
Summary Information
  11 codes involving  4 elements
0 codes involving 3 elements
1 codes involving 2 elements
Composite Feature Index
411111111
30000
20011
1234
True Positives
MAL_CANFA     MAL_HUMAN     MAL_MOUSE     MAL_RAT       
PLLP_HUMAN PLLP_RAT Q91X49 Q969L2
Q9BTU0 Q9CZR4 Q9DCU2
True Positive Partials
Codes involving 2 elements
Q9D2R2
Sequence Titles
MAL_CANFA   Myelin and lymphocyte protein (T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein) (VIP17 proteolipid) - Canis familiaris (Dog). 
MAL_HUMAN Myelin and lymphocyte protein (T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein) - Homo sapiens (Human).
MAL_MOUSE Myelin and lymphocyte protein (T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein) - Mus musculus (Mouse).
MAL_RAT Myelin and lymphocyte protein (T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein) (17 kDa myelin vesicular protein) (MVP17) (NS 3) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
PLLP_HUMAN Plasmolipin - Homo sapiens (Human).
PLLP_RAT Plasmolipin - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
Q91X49 SIMILAR TO BENE PROTEIN - Mus musculus (Mouse).
Q969L2 HYPOTHETICAL 19.1 KDA PROTEIN (MAL2 PROTEOLIPID) - Homo sapiens (Human).
Q9BTU0 HYPOTHETICAL 17.4 KDA PROTEIN - Homo sapiens (Human).
Q9CZR4 2700018N07RIK PROTEIN - Mus musculus (Mouse).
Q9DCU2 0610010I06RIK PROTEIN (PLASMOLIPIN) - Mus musculus (Mouse).

Q9D2R2 MYELIN AND LYMPHOCYTE PROTEIN; T-CELL DIFFERENTIATION PROTEIN - Mus musculus (Mouse).
Scan History
SPTR40_20f 2  300  NSINGLE    
Initial Motifs
Motif 1  width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
VFGGLVWILIASS MAL_MOUSE 32 32 -
IFGGLVWILVASS MAL_HUMAN 32 32 -
ALGLLVWALIADT Q9DCU2 46 46 -
LFGGLVWILVASS Q969L2 45 45 -
VFGFWVWTLVAAT Q91X49 38 38 -

Motif 2 width=14
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
GWVMFVSVFCFVAT MAL_MOUSE 53 8 -
GWVMFVSVFCFVAT MAL_HUMAN 53 8 -
GWVMFVAVFLWLVT Q9DCU2 67 8 -
GWVMFVSVTAFFFS Q969L2 66 8 -
GWVLYVSLTSFLIS Q91X49 59 8 -

Motif 3 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
WITLDAAYHCVAALFY MAL_MOUSE 84 17 -
WVTLDAAYHCTAALFY MAL_HUMAN 84 17 -
WPLVLLIFFVAATVLY Q9DCU2 100 19 -
WNFLDFAYHFTVFVFY Q969L2 98 18 -
WRVLDSLYHGTTGILY Q91X49 90 17 -

Motif 4 width=18
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
YHENIAAVVFAYVVTLIY MAL_MOUSE 122 22 -
YHENIAAVVFSYIATLLY MAL_HUMAN 122 22 -
YNQRSAASFFACLVMIAY Q9DCU2 137 21 -
YNINVAASIFAFMTTACY Q969L2 146 32 -
YYINVAASFFAFLTTLLY Q91X49 127 21 -
Final Motifs
Motif 1  width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
IFGGLVWILIASS MAL_RAT 32 32 -
VFGGLVWILIASS MAL_MOUSE 32 32 -
IFGGLVWILVASS MAL_HUMAN 32 32 -
IFGGLVWILIASS MAL_CANFA 32 32 -
VLGLLVWALIADT PLLP_RAT 46 46 -
VLGLLVWALIADT PLLP_HUMAN 46 46 -
ALGLLVWALIADT Q9DCU2 46 46 -
LFGGLVWILVASS Q969L2 45 45 -
IFGFLVWTMVAAT Q9BTU0 36 36 -
VLGLLVWTLIAGT Q9CZR4 50 50 -
VFGFWVWTLVAAT Q91X49 38 38 -

Motif 2 width=14
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
GWVMFVSVFCFLAT MAL_RAT 53 8 -
GWVMFVSVFCFVAT MAL_MOUSE 53 8 -
GWVMFVSVFCFVAT MAL_HUMAN 53 8 -
GWVMFVSVFCFMAT MAL_CANFA 53 8 -
GWVMFVAVFLWLVT PLLP_RAT 67 8 -
GWVMFVAVFLWLVT PLLP_HUMAN 67 8 -
GWVMFVAVFLWLVT Q9DCU2 67 8 -
GWVMFVSVTAFFFS Q969L2 66 8 -
GWVMYVSLTSFLIS Q9BTU0 57 8 -
GWVMFVAVFYWVLT Q9CZR4 71 8 -
GWVLYVSLTSFLIS Q91X49 59 8 -

Motif 3 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
WITLDAAYHCVAALFY MAL_RAT 84 17 -
WITLDAAYHCVAALFY MAL_MOUSE 84 17 -
WVTLDAAYHCTAALFY MAL_HUMAN 84 17 -
WVTLDAAYHCIAALFY MAL_CANFA 84 17 -
WPLVLLVFFVAATVLY PLLP_RAT 100 19 -
WPLVLMIFNISATVLY PLLP_HUMAN 100 19 -
WPLVLLIFFVAATVLY Q9DCU2 100 19 -
WNFLDFAYHFTVFVFY Q969L2 98 18 -
WRVLDSLYHGTTGILY Q9BTU0 88 17 -
WTTVGLCFNGSAFVLY Q9CZR4 104 19 -
WRVLDSLYHGTTGILY Q91X49 90 17 -

Motif 4 width=18
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
YHENIAAVVFAYVATLLY MAL_RAT 122 22 -
YHENIAAVVFAYVVTLIY MAL_MOUSE 122 22 -
YHENIAAVVFSYIATLLY MAL_HUMAN 122 22 -
YHENISAVVFSYVATLLY MAL_CANFA 122 22 -
YNQRSAASFFACLVMIAY PLLP_RAT 137 21 -
YNQRAAASFFACLVMIAY PLLP_HUMAN 137 21 -
YNQRSAASFFACLVMIAY Q9DCU2 137 21 -
YNINVAASIFAFMTTACY Q969L2 146 32 -
YYINSAASFFAFIATLLY Q9BTU0 126 22 -
FNSWAASSFFAFLVTICY Q9CZR4 139 19 -
YYINVAASFFAFLTTLLY Q91X49 127 21 -