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PR00590

Identifier
SOMATOSTTN4R  [View Relations]  [View Alignment]  
Accession
PR00590
No. of Motifs
6
Creation Date
10-SEP-1996  (UPDATE 07-JUN-1999)
Title
Somatostatin receptor type 4 signature
Database References
PRINTS; PR90007 7TM; PR90006 GPCRCLAN; PR00237 GPCRRHODOPSN
PRINTS; PR00246 SOMATOSTATNR
INTERPRO; IPR001512
GCRDB; GCR_0495; GCR_0971; GCR_0607; GCR_0629; GCR_0632; GCR_0800
Literature References
1. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C. 
Fingerprinting G protein-coupled receptors.
PROTEIN ENG. 7(2) 195-203 (1994).
 
2. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C. 
G protein-coupled receptor fingerprints.
7TM, VOLUME 2, EDS. G.VRIEND AND B.BYWATER (1993).
 
3. BIRNBAUMER, L.
G proteins in signal transduction.
ANNU.REV.PHARMACOL.TOXICOL. 30 675-705 (1990).
 
4. CASEY, P.J. AND GILMAN, A.G.
G protein involvement in receptor-effector coupling.
J.BIOL.CHEM. 263(6) 2577-2580 (1988).
 
5. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C. 
Design of a discriminating fingerprint for G protein-coupled receptors.
PROTEIN ENG. 6(2) 167-176 (1993).
 
6. WATSON, S. AND ARKINSTALL, S.
Somatostatin.
IN THE G PROTEIN-LINKED RECEPTOR FACTSBOOK, ACADEMIC PRESS, PP.252-260.

Documentation
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a vast protein family that 
encompasses a wide range of functions (including various autocrine, para-
crine and endocrine processes). They show considerable diversity at the 
sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct 
groups. We use the term clan to describe the GPCRs, as they embrace a group
of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, 
but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in 
sequence [1]. The currently known clan members include the rhodopsin-like 
GPCRs, the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating
pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family.
 
The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family 
that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of
which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine
nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary 
widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the 
receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural 
framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices [3-5]. 
 
Somatostatin is a neurotransmitter/hormone with a wide range of biologial
functions [6]. It has an important role in the neuroendocrine system and
inhibits secretion of growth hormone and prolactin in the anterior
pituitary. It also inhibits secretion in the intestine (including gastric
acid in the stomach), pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatic beta-cells,
stimulates absorption in the intestine, and modulates smooth muscle 
contractility. In the CNS, it is a neurotransmitter activating a hyper-
polarising K+ current and inhibiting Ca2+ influx, and is believed to
play important roles in regulating locomotor activity and cognitive
function. Receptor subtypes were originally proposed on the basis of
functional and radio-ligand binding studies, and cloning has now confirmed
the presence of at least 4 subtypes.
 
mRNA for the SS4 receptor is present in high levels in the pituitary but
is absent from the brain and peripheral tissues [6]. The receptors inhibit
adenylyl cyclase through a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G protein, probably
belonging to the Gi/Go class [6].  
 
SOMATOSTTN4R is a 6-element fingerprint that provides a signature for the
type 4 somatostatin receptors. The fingerprint was derived from an initial
alignment of 4 sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved sections
within either loop or N- and C-terminal regions, focusing on those areas
of the alignment that characterise the type 4 somatostatin receptors but
distinguish them from the rest of the rhodopsin-like superfamily - motif 1
lies at the N-terminus; motifs 2 and 3 span the second and third external
loops res.; and motifs 4-6 lie at the C-terminus. A single iteration on
OWL28.1 was required to reach convergence, no further sequences being
identified beyond the starting set. 
 
An update on SPTR37_9f identified a true set of 3 sequences.
Summary Information
3 codes involving  6 elements
0 codes involving 5 elements
0 codes involving 4 elements
0 codes involving 3 elements
0 codes involving 2 elements
Composite Feature Index
6333333
5000000
4000000
3000000
2000000
123456
True Positives
SSR4_HUMAN    SSR4_MOUSE    SSR4_RAT      
Sequence Titles
SSR4_HUMAN  Somatostatin receptor type 4 (SS4R) - Homo sapiens (Human). 
SSR4_MOUSE Somatostatin receptor type 4 (SS4R) - Mus musculus (Mouse).
SSR4_RAT Somatostatin receptor type 4 (SS4R) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
Scan History
OWL28_1    1  100  NSINGLE    
SPTR37_9f 2 5 NSINGLE
Initial Motifs
Motif 1  width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
AGMVAIQCIYALV SSR4_HUMAN 45 45 -
AGMVAIQCIYALV HUMSOMATA 45 45 -
AGMVTIQCIYALV SSR4_MOUSE 41 41 -
AGMVTIQCIYALV SSR4_RAT 41 41 -

Motif 2 width=22
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
FADTRPARGGQAVACNLQWPHP SSR4_HUMAN 184 126 -
FADTRPARGGEAVACNLHWPHP SSR4_MOUSE 180 126 -
FADTRPARGGQAVACNLQWPHP HUMSOMATA 184 126 -
FADTRPARGGEAVACNLHWPHP SSR4_RAT 180 126 -

Motif 3 width=18
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
LFVTSLDATVNHVSLILS SSR4_MOUSE 279 77 -
LVVTSLDATVNHVSLILS HUMSOMATA 283 77 -
LFVTSLDATVNHVSLILS SSR4_RAT 279 77 -
LVVTSLDATVNHVSLILS SSR4_HUMAN 283 77 -

Motif 4 width=17
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
RCCLLETTGGAEEEPLD SSR4_RAT 325 28 -
RCCLLEGAGGAEEEPLD HUMSOMATA 329 28 -
RCCLLEGAGGAEEEPLD SSR4_HUMAN 329 28 -
RCCLLETTGGAEEEPLD SSR4_MOUSE 325 28 -

Motif 5 width=20
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
YYATALKSKGGAGCMCPPLK HUMSOMATA 346 0 -
YYATALKSRGGAGCICPPLP SSR4_MOUSE 342 0 -
YYATALKSRGGPGCICPPLP SSR4_RAT 342 0 -
YYATALKSKGGAGCMCPPLP SSR4_HUMAN 346 0 -

Motif 6 width=21
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
CQQEPMQAEPACKRVPFTKTT SSR4_RAT 362 0 -
CQQEALQPEPGRKRIPLTRTT SSR4_HUMAN 366 0 -
CQQEPVQAEPGCKQVPFTKTT SSR4_MOUSE 362 0 -
CQQEALQPEPGRKRIPLTRTT HUMSOMATA 366 0 -
Final Motifs
Motif 1  width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
AGMVTIQCIYALV SSR4_MOUSE 41 41 -
AGMVTIQCIYALV SSR4_RAT 41 41 -
AGMVAIQCIYALV SSR4_HUMAN 45 45 -

Motif 2 width=22
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
FADTRPARGGEAVACNLHWPHP SSR4_MOUSE 180 126 -
FADTRPARGGEAVACNLHWPHP SSR4_RAT 180 126 -
FADTRPARGGQAVACNLQWPHP SSR4_HUMAN 184 126 -

Motif 3 width=18
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
LFVTSLDATVNHVSLILS SSR4_MOUSE 279 77 -
LFVTSLDATVNHVSLILS SSR4_RAT 279 77 -
LVVTSLDATVNHVSLILS SSR4_HUMAN 283 77 -

Motif 4 width=17
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
RCCLLETTGGAEEEPLD SSR4_MOUSE 325 28 -
RCCLLETTGGAEEEPLD SSR4_RAT 325 28 -
RCCLLEGAGGAEEEPLD SSR4_HUMAN 329 28 -

Motif 5 width=20
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
YYATALKSRGGAGCICPPLP SSR4_MOUSE 342 0 -
YYATALKSRGGPGCICPPLP SSR4_RAT 342 0 -
YYATALKSKGGAGCMCPPLP SSR4_HUMAN 346 0 -

Motif 6 width=21
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
CQQEPVQAEPGCKQVPFTKTT SSR4_MOUSE 362 0 -
CQQEPMQAEPACKRVPFTKTT SSR4_RAT 362 0 -
CQQEALQPEPGRKRIPLTRTT SSR4_HUMAN 366 0 -