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PR02004

Identifier
RELAXIN  [View Relations]  [View Alignment]  
Accession
PR02004
No. of Motifs
6
Creation Date
14-APR-1994  (UPDATE 16-APR-2009)
Title
Relaxin signature
Database References
PRINTS; PR00276 INSULINFAMLY
PDB; 1A7F; 1AI0; 1AIY; 1APH; 1B9E; 1B9G; 1BEN; 1BPH

PDB; 1BQT; 1CPH
SCOP; 1A7F; 1AI0; 1AIY; 1APH; 1B9E; 1B9G; 1BEN; 1BPH

SCOP; 1BQT; 1CPH
CATH; 1A7F; 1AI0; 1AIY; 1APH; 1B9E; 1B9G; 1BEN; 1BPH

CATH; 1BQT; 1CPH
MIM; 147440; 176730; 608747
Literature References
1. BLUNDELL, T.L. AND HUMBEL, R.E. 
Hormone families: pancreatic hormones and homologous growth factors. 
NATURE 287 781-7 (1980). 
 
2. BELL, G.I., PICTET, R.L., RUTTER, W.J., CORDELL, B., TISCHER, E. AND
GOODMAN, H.M.
Sequence of the human insulin gene.
NATURE 284 26-32 (1980).
 
3. BELL, G.I., SWAIN, W.F., PICTET, R.L., CORDELL, B., GOODMAN, H.M. AND
RUTTER, W.J.
Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding human preproinsulin.
NATURE 282 525-527 (1979).
 
4. GARIBAY-TUPAS, J.L., CSISZAR, K., FOX, M., POVEY, S. AND 
BRYANT-GREENWOOD, G.D. 
Analysis of the 5'-upstream regions of the human relaxin H1 and H2 genes
and their chromosomal localization on chromosome 9p24.1 by radiation hybrid
and breakpoint mapping. 
J.MOL.ENDOCRINOL. 23 355-365 (1999). 
 
5. GUNNERSEN, J.M., FU, P., ROCHE, P.J. AND TREGEAR, G.W. 
Expression of human relaxin genes: characterization of a novel 
alternatively-spliced human relaxin mRNA species. 
MOL.CELL.ENDOCRINOL. 118 85-94 (1996). 
 
6. KONDO, H., INO, M., SUZUKI, A., ISHIZAKI, H. AND IWAMI, M. 
Multiple gene copies for bombyxin, an insulin-related peptide of the 
silkmoth Bombyx mori: structural signs for gene rearrangement and 
duplication responsible for generation of multiple molecular forms of
bombyxin. 
J.MOL.BIOL. 259 926-937 (1996). 
 
7. COOKE, R.M., HARVEY, T.S. AND CAMPBELL, I.D. 
Solution structure of human insulin-like growth factor 1: a nuclear magnetic 
resonance and restrained molecular dynamics study. 
BIOCHEMISTRY 30 5484-5491 (1991). 
 
8. SATO, A., NISHIMURA, S., OHKUBO, T., KYOGOKU, Y., KOYAMA, S.,
KOBAYASHI, M., YASUDA, T. AND KOBAYASHI, Y. 
1H-NMR assignment and secondary structure of human insulin-like growth
factor-I (IGF-I) in solution. 
J.BIOCHEM. 111 529-536 (1992). 
 
9. BRANGE, J., DODSON, G.G., EDWARDS, D.J., HOLDEN, P.H. AND 
WHITTINGHAM, J.L. 
A model of insulin fibrils derived from the X-ray crystal structure of a 
monomeric insulin (despentapeptide insulin). 
PROTEINS 27 507-516 (1997). 
 
10. HUDSON, P., HALEY, J., JOHN, M., CRONK, M., CRAWFORD, R., 
HARALAMBIDIS, J., TREGEAR, G., SHINE, J. AND NIALL, H.
Structure of a genomic clone encoding biologically active human relaxin.
NATURE 301 628-631 (1983).

Documentation
The insulin family of proteins groups together several evolutionarily
related active peptides [1]: these include insulin [2,3], relaxin [4,5],
insect prothoracicotropic hormone (bombyxin) [6], insulin-like growth
factors (IGF1 and IGF2) [7,8], mammalian Leydig cell-specific insulin-like
peptide (gene INSL3), early placenta insulin-like peptide (ELIP) (gene
INSL4), locust insulin-related peptide (LIRP), molluscan insulin-related
peptides (MIP), and Caenorhabditis elegans insulin-like peptides. The 3D
structures of a number of family members have been determined [7-9]. The
fold comprises two polypeptide chains (A and B) linked by two disulphide 
bonds: all share a conserved arrangement of 4 cysteines in their A chain,
the first of which is linked by a disulphide bond to the third, while the
second and fourth are linked by interchain disulphide bonds to cysteines
in the B chain.
 
Relaxin is encoded by two non-allelic genes in humans and great apes, and by
a single gene in all other species studied to date [5]. The expression of 
human relaxin genes (H1 and H2) has been characterised in placenta, decidua,
prostate and ovary: H2 relaxin mRNA was detected in the ovary, term
placenta, decidua, and prostate gland; by contrast, H1 gene expression was
detected only in the prostate gland [5]. Synthesised in the corpora lutea of
ovaries during pregnancy, relaxin is released into the blood stream prior to
parturition [10]. With oestrogen, it acts to produce dilation of the birth
canal in many mammals, its major biological role being to remodel the
reproductive tract to facilitate the birth process [10].
 
RELAXIN is a 6-element fingerprint that provides a signature for the
relaxins. The fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment of 13
sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved regions spanning virtually
the full alignment length, focusing on those sections that characterise the
relaxins but distinguish them from closely related members of the insulin
family. Three iterations on SPTR55_38f were required to reach convergence, 
at which point a true set comprising 13 sequences was identified. Six
partial matches were also found, all of which are relaxins and placentins
that fail to make significant matches with one or more motifs.
Summary Information
  13 codes involving  6 elements
2 codes involving 5 elements
1 codes involving 4 elements
0 codes involving 3 elements
3 codes involving 2 elements
Composite Feature Index
6131313131313
5121222
4111100
3000000
2303000
123456
True Positives
A2RTV8_MOUSE  Q7TQA2_RAT    Q9GK46_GALCR  Q9N0T9_CAMDR  
REL1_HUMAN REL1_MOUSE REL1_RAT REL2_HUMAN
RELX_FELCA RELX_HORSE RELX_MACMU RELX_MESAU
RELX_PIG
True Positive Partials
Codes involving 5 elements
Q8BT12_MOUSE RELX_CANFA
Codes involving 4 elements
RELH_RABIT
Codes involving 2 elements
A8K678_HUMAN INSL4_HUMAN INSL4_PANTR
Sequence Titles
A2RTV8_MOUSE Relaxin 1 - Mus musculus (Mouse).             
Q7TQA2_RAT Preprorelaxin - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
Q9GK46_GALCR Prorelaxin - Galago crassicaudatus (Thick-tailed galago) (Otolemur crassicaudatus).
Q9N0T9_CAMDR Preprorelaxin - Camelus dromedarius (Dromedary) (Arabian camel).
REL1_HUMAN Prorelaxin H1 precursor [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Homo sapiens (Human).
REL1_MOUSE Prorelaxin 1 precursor [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Mus musculus (Mouse).
REL1_RAT Prorelaxin 1 precursor [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
REL2_HUMAN Prorelaxin H2 precursor [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Homo sapiens (Human).
RELX_FELCA Prorelaxin precursor (RXN) [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Felis silvestris catus (Cat).
RELX_HORSE Prorelaxin precursor (RXN) [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Equus caballus (Horse).
RELX_MACMU Prorelaxin precursor [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque).
RELX_MESAU Prorelaxin precursor [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Mesocricetus auratus (Golden hamster).
RELX_PIG Prorelaxin precursor [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Sus scrofa (Pig).

Q8BT12_MOUSE 10 days embryo whole body cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, clone:2610528L14 product:relaxin, full insert sequence - Mus musculus (Mouse).
RELX_CANFA Prorelaxin precursor [Contains: Relaxin B chain; Relaxin A chain] - Canis familiaris (Dog).

RELH_RABIT Relaxin-like protein SQ10 precursor [Contains: Relaxin-like protein SQ10 B chain; Relaxin-like protein SQ10 A chain] - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit).

A8K678_HUMAN cDNA FLJ76562, highly similar to Homo sapiens insulin-like 4 (placenta) (INSL4), mRNA (Insulin-like 4) (Placenta) - Homo sapiens (Human).
INSL4_HUMAN Early placenta insulin-like peptide precursor (EPIL) (Placentin) (Insulin-like peptide 4) [Contains: Early placenta insulin-like peptide B chain; Early placenta insulin-like peptide A chain] - Homo sapiens (Human).
INSL4_PANTR Early placenta insulin-like peptide precursor (EPIL) (Placentin) (Insulin-like peptide 4) [Contains: Early placenta insulin-like peptide B chain; Early placenta insulin-like peptide A chain] - Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee).
Scan History
SPTR55_38f 3  65   NSINGLE    
Initial Motifs
Motif 1  width=17
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
FLSHLLGVWLLLSLRAR RELX_FELCA 5 5 -
FFFHLLGVWLLLTQISR Q9GK46_GALCR 5 5 -
FVLQLLGFWLLLSQPCR RELX_MESAU 5 5 -
LLFYLLGFCLLQGQVTG RELH_RABIT 4 4 -
FLLQLLGFWLLLSQPCR A2RTV8_MOUSE 5 5 -
FLLQLLGFWLLLSQPCR REL1_MOUSE 5 5 -
FLFHLLGVCLLLNQFSR RELX_MACMU 5 5 -
FFFHLLGVCLLLNQFSR REL2_HUMAN 5 5 -
LLLQLLGFWLFLSQPCR Q7TQA2_RAT 5 5 -
LLLQLLGFWLFLSQPCR REL1_RAT 5 5 -
FLFHLLEFCLLLNQFSR REL1_HUMAN 5 5 -
FLSHVLGAWLLLSQLPR RELX_HORSE 5 5 -
LFSYLLGVWLLLSQLPR RELX_PIG 4 4 -

Motif 2 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
IVSSSITSGAEALNGM RELX_FELCA 70 48 -
AVSSFIKEDAEPFDTM RELX_MESAU 68 46 -
TVPSSIKKDAENANTM RELH_RABIT 71 50 -
VVPSFINKDAEPFDTT A2RTV8_MOUSE 72 50 -
VVPSFINKDAEPFDTT REL1_MOUSE 72 50 -
IVPSLINQDTETINMM RELX_MACMU 72 50 -
IVPSFINKDTETINMM REL2_HUMAN 72 50 -
VVPSFINKDAEPFDMT Q7TQA2_RAT 72 50 -
VVPSFINKDAEPFDMT REL1_RAT 73 51 -
IVPSFINKDTETIIIM REL1_HUMAN 72 50 -
IVSSSISKDAEALNTK RELX_HORSE 72 50 -
TMPSSITKDAEILKMM RELX_PIG 71 50 -
VPSSFINKDAETINMM Q9GK46_GALCR 75 53 -

Motif 3 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
NLSEELKAVLSEA A2RTV8_MOUSE 93 5 -
NLPQELTATLFEK RELH_RABIT 92 5 -
NLSEELKAVLSEA REL1_MOUSE 93 5 -
NLPQELKLTLSER RELX_MACMU 93 5 -
NLPQELKLTLSEM REL2_HUMAN 93 5 -
NLSEERKAALSEG Q7TQA2_RAT 93 5 -
NLSEERKAALSEG REL1_RAT 94 5 -
NLPPELKAALSER REL1_HUMAN 93 5 -
NLPKEQKATLSER RELX_HORSE 93 5 -
NLPQELKATLSER RELX_PIG 92 5 -
NLPQKQKTTQSEM Q9GK46_GALCR 96 5 -
NLSEKPKTALPEG RELX_MESAU 85 1 -

Motif 4 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
PVLSDSVVSLEGFKK A2RTV8_MOUSE 116 10 -
PVLSDSVVSLEGFKK REL1_MOUSE 116 10 -
PTLKKSNVSFEEFKK RELH_RABIT 115 10 -
PVLKDSNLSFEEFKK RELX_MACMU 117 11 -
PVLKDSSLLFEEFKK REL2_HUMAN 117 11 -
PALSDSVVSLEGFKK Q7TQA2_RAT 117 11 -
PALSDSVVSLEGFKK REL1_RAT 118 11 -
PALKDSNLSFEEFKK REL1_HUMAN 117 11 -
PALKDSNLNLEEFEE RELX_HORSE 116 10 -
SASKDSNLNFEEFKK RELX_PIG 114 9 -
PSLKDSNLNLEEVEK RELX_FELCA 112 8 -
PTLKGSDISFEEVKN Q9GK46_GALCR 120 11 -
PVSSDSVGSLDDFKK RELX_MESAU 109 11 -

Motif 5 width=12
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
LGEAEDGSPPGL A2RTV8_MOUSE 136 5 -
LGEAEDGSPPGL REL1_MOUSE 136 5 -
QSEATDSSPSEL RELX_MACMU 137 5 -
QSEAADSSPSEL REL2_HUMAN 137 5 -
LGEAEDGGPPEL Q7TQA2_RAT 137 5 -
LGEAEDGGPPEL REL1_RAT 138 5 -
QSEAADSNPSEL REL1_HUMAN 137 5 -
QSEVEDDSLSEL RELX_HORSE 136 5 -
QNEAEDKSLLEL RELX_PIG 134 5 -
QNEAEDQSLSQL RELX_FELCA 132 5 -
QGEAEDNSHSEL Q9GK46_GALCR 140 5 -
QGEAEDSSLPEL RELX_MESAU 129 5 -

Motif 6 width=9
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
IGCTKRSLA Q9GK46_GALCR 177 25 -
VGCSRRSIA A2RTV8_MOUSE 173 25 -
VGCSRRSIA REL1_MOUSE 173 25 -
IGCTKKSLA RELX_MACMU 174 25 -
VGCTKRSLA REL2_HUMAN 174 25 -
IGCTRRSIA Q7TQA2_RAT 174 25 -
IGCTRRSIA REL1_RAT 175 25 -
IGCTKRSLA REL1_HUMAN 174 25 -
WGCTRKELA RELX_HORSE 171 23 -
VGCIRKDIA RELX_PIG 171 25 -
VGCTRKELA RELX_FELCA 169 25 -
RGCSRRSLT RELX_MESAU 166 25 -
Final Motifs
Motif 1  width=17
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
FLLQLLGFWLLLSQPCR A2RTV8_MOUSE 5 5 -
FLLQLLGFWLLLSQPCR REL1_MOUSE 5 5 -
FLFHLLGVCLLLNQFSR RELX_MACMU 5 5 -
FFFHLLGVCLLLNQFSR REL2_HUMAN 5 5 -
LLLQLLGFWLFLSQPCR Q7TQA2_RAT 5 5 -
LLLQLLGFWLFLSQPCR REL1_RAT 5 5 -
FLFHLLEFCLLLNQFSR REL1_HUMAN 5 5 -
LLSHLLGVWLLLSQLPK Q9N0T9_CAMDR 5 5 -
FLSHVLGAWLLLSQLPR RELX_HORSE 5 5 -
LFSYLLGVWLLLSQLPR RELX_PIG 4 4 -
FLSHLLGVWLLLSLRAR RELX_FELCA 5 5 -
FFFHLLGVWLLLTQISR Q9GK46_GALCR 5 5 -
FVLQLLGFWLLLSQPCR RELX_MESAU 5 5 -

Motif 2 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
VVPSFINKDAEPFDTT A2RTV8_MOUSE 72 50 -
VVPSFINKDAEPFDTT REL1_MOUSE 72 50 -
IVPSLINQDTETINMM RELX_MACMU 72 50 -
IVPSFINKDTETINMM REL2_HUMAN 72 50 -
VVPSFINKDAEPFDMT Q7TQA2_RAT 72 50 -
VVPSFINKDAEPFDMT REL1_RAT 73 51 -
IVPSFINKDTETIIIM REL1_HUMAN 72 50 -
IMPSSITKDAETLTTM Q9N0T9_CAMDR 89 67 -
IVSSSISKDAEALNTK RELX_HORSE 72 50 -
TMPSSITKDAEILKMM RELX_PIG 71 50 -
IVSSSITSGAEALNGM RELX_FELCA 70 48 -
VPSSFINKDAETINMM Q9GK46_GALCR 75 53 -
AVSSFIKEDAEPFDTM RELX_MESAU 68 46 -

Motif 3 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
NLSEELKAVLSEA A2RTV8_MOUSE 93 5 -
NLSEELKAVLSEA REL1_MOUSE 93 5 -
NLPQELKLTLSER RELX_MACMU 93 5 -
NLPQELKLTLSEM REL2_HUMAN 93 5 -
NLSEERKAALSEG Q7TQA2_RAT 93 5 -
NLSEERKAALSEG REL1_RAT 94 5 -
NLPPELKAALSER REL1_HUMAN 93 5 -
NLPQELTATLSER Q9N0T9_CAMDR 110 5 -
NLPKEQKATLSER RELX_HORSE 93 5 -
NLPQELKATLSER RELX_PIG 92 5 -
DLPQELKATLSER RELX_FELCA 91 5 -
NLPQKQKTTQSEM Q9GK46_GALCR 96 5 -
NLSEKPKTALPEG RELX_MESAU 85 1 -

Motif 4 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
PVLSDSVVSLEGFKK A2RTV8_MOUSE 116 10 -
PVLSDSVVSLEGFKK REL1_MOUSE 116 10 -
PVLKDSNLSFEEFKK RELX_MACMU 117 11 -
PVLKDSSLLFEEFKK REL2_HUMAN 117 11 -
PALSDSVVSLEGFKK Q7TQA2_RAT 117 11 -
PALSDSVVSLEGFKK REL1_RAT 118 11 -
PALKDSNLSFEEFKK REL1_HUMAN 117 11 -
PALKDSNLNFEEFKK Q9N0T9_CAMDR 131 8 -
PALKDSNLNLEEFEE RELX_HORSE 116 10 -
SASKDSNLNFEEFKK RELX_PIG 114 9 -
PSLKDSNLNLEEVEK RELX_FELCA 112 8 -
PTLKGSDISFEEVKN Q9GK46_GALCR 120 11 -
PVSSDSVGSLDDFKK RELX_MESAU 109 11 -

Motif 5 width=12
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
LGEAEDGSPPGL A2RTV8_MOUSE 136 5 -
LGEAEDGSPPGL REL1_MOUSE 136 5 -
QSEATDSSPSEL RELX_MACMU 137 5 -
QSEAADSSPSEL REL2_HUMAN 137 5 -
LGEAEDGGPPEL Q7TQA2_RAT 137 5 -
LGEAEDGGPPEL REL1_RAT 138 5 -
QSEAADSNPSEL REL1_HUMAN 137 5 -
QNEEEDESLSEL Q9N0T9_CAMDR 151 5 -
QSEVEDDSLSEL RELX_HORSE 136 5 -
QNEAEDKSLLEL RELX_PIG 134 5 -
QNEAEDQSLSQL RELX_FELCA 132 5 -
QGEAEDNSHSEL Q9GK46_GALCR 140 5 -
QGEAEDSSLPEL RELX_MESAU 129 5 -

Motif 6 width=9
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
VGCSRRSIA A2RTV8_MOUSE 173 25 -
VGCSRRSIA REL1_MOUSE 173 25 -
IGCTKKSLA RELX_MACMU 174 25 -
VGCTKRSLA REL2_HUMAN 174 25 -
IGCTRRSIA Q7TQA2_RAT 174 25 -
IGCTRRSIA REL1_RAT 175 25 -
IGCTKRSLA REL1_HUMAN 174 25 -
KGCSRKEMA Q9N0T9_CAMDR 188 25 -
WGCTRKELA RELX_HORSE 171 23 -
VGCIRKDIA RELX_PIG 171 25 -
VGCTRKELA RELX_FELCA 169 25 -
IGCTKRSLA Q9GK46_GALCR 177 25 -
RGCSRRSLT RELX_MESAU 166 25 -