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PR01581

Identifier
KV31CHANNEL  [View Relations]  [View Alignment]  
Accession
PR01581
No. of Motifs
4
Creation Date
11-SEP-2001
Title
Kv3.1 voltage-gated K+ channel signature
Database References
PRINTS; PR00169 KCHANNEL; PR01491 KVCHANNEL; PR01498 SHAWCHANNEL
Literature References
1. MILLER, C.
An overview of the potassium channel family.
GENOME BIOL. 1(4) 1-5 (2000).
 
2. ASHCROFT, F.M.
Voltage-gated K+ channels.
IN ION CHANNELS AND DISEASE, ACADEMIC PRESS, 2000, PP.97-123.
 
3. SANSOM, M.S.
Putting the parts together.
CURR.BIOL. 9(19) R738-R741 (1999).   
 
4. CONLEY, E.C. AND BRAMMAR, W.J.
Shaw.
IN THE ION CHANNEL FACTSBOOK, VOLUME IV, ACADEMIC PRESS, 1999, PP.559-614.

Documentation
Potassium ion (K+) channels are a structurally diverse group of proteins
that facilitate the flow of K+ ions across cell membranes. They are
ubiquitous, being present in virtually all cell types. Activation of K+
channels tends to hyperpolarise cells, reducing the membrane's electrical
resistance, dampening nervous activity. In eukaryotic cells, K+ channels
are involved in neural signalling and generation of the cardiac rhythm, and
act as effectors in signal transduction pathways involving G protein-
coupled receptors (GPCRs). In prokaryotic cells, they play a role in the
maintenance of ionic homeostasis [1].
   
Structurally, Kv channels belong to the subfamily of K+ channels whose
subunits contain 6 transmembrane (TM) domains: these are the voltage-
gated K+ (Kv) channels, the KCNQ channels, the EAG-like K+ channels and
3 kinds of Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK, IK and SK) [2]. All K+
channels share a characteristic sequence feature: a TMxTVGYG motif
that resides between the 2 C-terminal membrane spanning helices, and
forms the K+-selective pore domain [1-2].
 
The Kv family can be divided into 4 subfamilies on the basis of sequence
similarity and function: Shaker (Kv1), Shab (Kv2), Shaw (Kv3) and Shal 
(Kv4). All consist of pore-forming alpha subunits that associate with 
different types of beta subunit. To form a functional K+ channel pore,
4 alpha subunits and 4 beta subunits are required. The alpha subunits
have 6 well-conserved TM domains, a pore loop region and variable length
N- and C-termini. TM domains 5 and 6, and the loop region, form the K+ 
channel pore through which the K+ ions pass [3]. 
 
The shaw gene was first isolated from Drosophila. Several vertebrate K+
channels with similar amino acid sequences were subsequently found and,
together with the Drosophila Shaw channel, now constitute the Shaw (Kv3)
family. These channels are thought to play a role in shortening of action
potential durations and modulating pre-synaptic neurotransmitter release.
In mammals, the family consists of 4 genes (Kv3.1, Kv3.2, Kv3.3 and Kv3.4).
Each gene product has its own subcellular location and function [4].
 
Kv3.1 channels have slow-rising delayed rectifier-type outward currents that
inactivate slowly. They have a tentative role in the fast action potential
repolarisation abundant in rapidly firing neurons, such as the auditory
brainstem, and hippocampal and cortical interneurons [4]. There are two 
forms, -a and -b, which differ in expression during development. Kv3.1a
appears to be found in the neurons of the adult brain, whereas Kv3.1b is
expressed in embryonic and perinatal neurons. In addition, Kv3.1 channels
can also be found in T-lymphocytes [4].  
 
KV31CHANNEL is a 4-element fingerprint that provides a signature for the
Kv3.1 voltage-gated K+ channel. The fingerprint was derived from an initial
alignment of 4 sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved regions
spanning the full alignment length - motif 1 is situated in the N-terminus;
motifs 2 and 3 lie in the loop between the first and second putative TM 
domains; and motif 4 is located in the C-terminus. A single iteration on
SPTR39.22_17.3f was required to reach convergence, no further sequences
being identified beyond the starting set. Several partial matches were
found, all of which are members of the Kv3.1 channel family or are
closely related K+ channels that fail to make significant matches with
one or more motifs.
Summary Information
   4 codes involving  4 elements
2 codes involving 3 elements
4 codes involving 2 elements
Composite Feature Index
44444
30222
20404
1234
True Positives
CIKD_HUMAN    CIKD_MOUSE    CIKD_RAT      Q9XSJ8        
True Positive Partials
Codes involving 3 elements
CIKG_RAT Q9PVD1
Codes involving 2 elements
CIKE_RAT CIKG_HUMAN Q9H1V7 Q9IA29
Sequence Titles
CIKD_HUMAN  VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL PROTEIN KV3.1 (KV4) (NGK2) - Homo sapiens (Human). 
CIKD_MOUSE VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL PROTEIN KV3.1 (KV4) (NGK2) - Mus musculus (Mouse).
CIKD_RAT VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL PROTEIN KV3.1 (KV4) (NGK2) (RAW2) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
Q9XSJ8 KV3.1 - Canis familiaris (Dog).

CIKG_RAT VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL PROTEIN KV3.4 (RAW3) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
Q9PVD1 KV3.1 POTASSIUM CHANNEL - Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog).

CIKE_RAT VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL PROTEIN KV3.2 (KSHIIIA) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
CIKG_HUMAN VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL PROTEIN KV3.4 (KSHIIIC) - Homo sapiens (Human).
Q9H1V7 DJ1003J2.3.1 (POTASSIUM VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNEL, SHAW-RELATED SUBFAMILY, MEMBER 4) - Homo sapiens (Human).
Q9IA29 SHAW-RELATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL PROTEIN RAW1 - Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout) (Salmo gairdneri).
Scan History
SPTR39.22_17.3f 1  50   NSINGLE    
Initial Motifs
Motif 1  width=9
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
GPGDSGDGE CIKD_HUMAN 138 138 -
GPGDSGDGE CIKD_RAT 138 138 -
GPGDSGDGE CIKD_MOUSE 138 138 -
GPGDSGDGE Q9XSJ8 138 138 -

Motif 2 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
HERFNPIVNKTEIENV CIKD_HUMAN 212 65 -
HERFNPIVNKTEIENV CIKD_RAT 212 65 -
HERFNPIVNKTEIENV CIKD_MOUSE 212 65 -
HERFNPIVNKTEIENV Q9XSJ8 212 65 -

Motif 3 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
RNGTQVRYYREAE CIKD_HUMAN 228 0 -
RNGTQVRYYREAE CIKD_RAT 228 0 -
RNGTQVRYYREAE CIKD_MOUSE 228 0 -
RNDTQVRYYREAE Q9XSJ8 228 0 -

Motif 4 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
VVNSPHHSTQSDTCP CIKD_HUMAN 475 234 -
VVNSPHHSTQSDTCP CIKD_RAT 475 234 -
VVNSPHHSTQSDTCP CIKD_MOUSE 475 234 -
VVNSPHHSTQSDTCP Q9XSJ8 475 234 -
Final Motifs
Motif 1  width=9
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
GPGDSGDGE CIKD_HUMAN 138 138 -
GPGDSGDGE CIKD_RAT 138 138 -
GPGDSGDGE CIKD_MOUSE 138 138 -
GPGDSGDGE Q9XSJ8 138 138 -

Motif 2 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
HERFNPIVNKTEIENV CIKD_HUMAN 212 65 -
HERFNPIVNKTEIENV CIKD_RAT 212 65 -
HERFNPIVNKTEIENV CIKD_MOUSE 212 65 -
HERFNPIVNKTEIENV Q9XSJ8 212 65 -

Motif 3 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
RNGTQVRYYREAE CIKD_HUMAN 228 0 -
RNGTQVRYYREAE CIKD_RAT 228 0 -
RNGTQVRYYREAE CIKD_MOUSE 228 0 -
RNDTQVRYYREAE Q9XSJ8 228 0 -

Motif 4 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
VVNSPHHSTQSDTCP CIKD_HUMAN 475 234 -
VVNSPHHSTQSDTCP CIKD_RAT 475 234 -
VVNSPHHSTQSDTCP CIKD_MOUSE 475 234 -
VVNSPHHSTQSDTCP Q9XSJ8 475 234 -