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PR01419

Identifier
GALANIN2R  [View Relations]  [View Alignment]  
Accession
PR01419
No. of Motifs
5
Creation Date
13-NOV-2000
Title
Galanin 2 receptor signature
Database References
PRINTS; PR90007 7TM; PR90006 GPCRCLAN; PR00237 GPCRRHODOPSN
PRINTS; PR00663 GALANINR
GCRDB; GCR_1365; GCR_2498; GCR_2563
Literature References
1. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C. 
Fingerprinting G protein-coupled receptors.
PROTEIN ENG. 7(2) 195-203 (1994).
 
2. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C. 
G protein-coupled receptor fingerprints.
7TM, VOLUME 2, EDS. G.VRIEND AND B.BYWATER (1993).
 
3. BIRNBAUMER, L.
G proteins in signal transduction.
ANNU.REV.PHARMACOL.TOXICOL. 30 675-705 (1990).
 
4. CASEY, P.J. AND GILMAN, A.G.
G protein involvement in receptor-effector coupling.
J.BIOL.CHEM. 263(6) 2577-2580 (1988).
 
5. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C. 
Design of a discriminating fingerprint for G protein-coupled receptors.
PROTEIN ENG. 6(2) 167-176 (1993).
 
6. WATSON, S. AND ARKINSTALL, S.
Galanin.
IN THE G PROTEIN-LINKED RECEPTOR FACTSBOOK, ACADEMIC PRESS, 1994, PP.124-125.
 
7. WANG, S., HASHEMI, T., FRIED, S., CLEMMONS, A.L. AND HAWES, B.E.
Differential intracellular signaling of the GalR1 and GalR2 galanin
receptor subtypes.
BIOCHEMISTRY 37 6711-6717 (1998).
 
8. BRANCHEK, T.A, SMITH, K.E., GERALD, C. AND WALKER, M.W.
Galanin receptor subtypes.
TRENDS PHARMACOL.SCI. 21(3) 109-117 (2000).

Documentation
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a vast protein family that
encompasses a wide range of functions (including various autocrine,
paracrine and endocrine processes). They show considerable diversity at the
sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct
groups. We use the term clan to describe the GPCRs, as they embrace a group
of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship,
but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in
sequence [1]. The currently known clan members include the rhodopsin-like
GPCRs, the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating
pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. 
 
The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family
that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of 
which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine
nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary
widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the 
receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural 
framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices [3-5]. 
 
Galanin is a neurotransmitter in the peripheral and central nervous systems
with a wide spectrum of activity [6]. In the periphery, galanin inhibits
glucose-induced insulin release and may be the sympathetic mediator of this
effect during stress. In the CNS, it inhibits firing of locus coeruleus
cells, is synergistic with opiates in inducing analgesia at the level of the
spinal cord, and stimulates feeding behaviour and release of growth hormone
[6]. Its ability to inhibit acetylcholine release in the hippocampus has led
to the suggestion that galanin antagonists may be of use in the treatment of
Alzheimer's disease. 
 
Galanin receptors are expressed abundantly in a wide range of CNS and
peripheral tissues, mirroring the distribution of galanin. Three receptor
subtypes have been identified, differing from one another in terms of their
expression patterns, affinity for various peptide analogues and G protein-
coupling specificity [7]. All are capable of activating K+ channels
by coupling to G proteins of the Gi/Go class [8].
 
The galanin 2 receptor subtype is expressed abundantly in both central and
peripheral systems. In the brain, it has been found in the hypothalamus,
amygdala, hippocampus, pyriform cortex, dendate gyrus, mammillary nuclei and
cerebellar cortex. Peripheral regions expressing the receptor include the
prostate, uterus, ovary, vas deferens, stomach, intestine, dorsal root,
pancreas, liver, heart and retina [8]. Activation of the receptor by galanin
leads to inhibition of forskolin-stimulated increase in cAMP levels,
activation of MAP kinase, and increased inositol phosphate production,
indicating that the receptor can couple to Gi, Go and Gq type G proteins.
The receptor does not appear to couple to Gs [7].
 
GALANIN2R is a 5-element fingerprint that provides a signature for the
galanin 2 receptor. The fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment of
3 sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved sections within the N- and
C-terminal regions and the third cytoplasmic loop, focusing on those areas
of the alignment that characterise the galanin 2 receptors but distinguish
them from the rest of the galanin receptor family - motif 1 resides at the
N-terminus; motif 2 lies in the third cytoplasmic loop; and motifs 3-5 span
the C-terminus. A single iteration on SPTR39_14f was required to reach
convergence, no further sequences being identified beyond the starting set.
Summary Information
3 codes involving  5 elements
0 codes involving 4 elements
0 codes involving 3 elements
0 codes involving 2 elements
Composite Feature Index
533333
400000
300000
200000
12345
True Positives
GALS_RAT      O43603        O88854        
Sequence Titles
GALS_RAT    GALANIN RECEPTOR TYPE 2 (GAL2-R) (GALR2) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat). 
O43603 GALANIN RECEPTOR GALR2 - HOMO SAPIENS (HUMAN).
O88854 GALANIN RECEPTOR TYPE 2 - MUS MUSCULUS (MOUSE).
Scan History
SPTR39_14f 1  60   NSINGLE    
Initial Motifs
Motif 1  width=19
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
MNGSDSQGAEDSSQEGGGG O88854 1 1 -
MNGSGSQGAENTSQEGGSG GALS_RAT 1 1 -
MNVSGCPGAGNASQAGGGG O43603 1 1 -

Motif 2 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
RTVDPVAAGSGSQRA O88854 215 195 -
RTVDPVTAGSGSQRA GALS_RAT 216 196 -
RAVDPVAAGSGARRA O43603 216 196 -

Motif 3 width=18
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
CAGLLRRAPRRASGRVCI O88854 306 76 -
CAGLLRPAPRRASGRVSI GALS_RAT 307 76 -
CAGLLGRAPGRASGRVCA O43603 307 76 -

Motif 4 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
APGNHSGGMLEPEST O88854 325 1 -
APGNHSGSMLEQEST GALS_RAT 326 1 -
ARGTHSGSVLERESS O43603 326 1 -

Motif 5 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
DLTQVSEAAGPLVPAP O88854 340 0 -
DLTQVSEAAGPLVPPP GALS_RAT 341 0 -
DLLHMSEAAGALRPCP O43603 341 0 -
Final Motifs
Motif 1  width=19
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
MNGSDSQGAEDSSQEGGGG O88854 1 1 -
MNGSGSQGAENTSQEGGSG GALS_RAT 1 1 -
MNVSGCPGAGNASQAGGGG O43603 1 1 -

Motif 2 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
RTVDPVAAGSGSQRA O88854 215 195 -
RTVDPVTAGSGSQRA GALS_RAT 216 196 -
RAVDPVAAGSGARRA O43603 216 196 -

Motif 3 width=18
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
CAGLLRRAPRRASGRVCI O88854 306 76 -
CAGLLRPAPRRASGRVSI GALS_RAT 307 76 -
CAGLLGRAPGRASGRVCA O43603 307 76 -

Motif 4 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
APGNHSGGMLEPEST O88854 325 1 -
APGNHSGSMLEQEST GALS_RAT 326 1 -
ARGTHSGSVLERESS O43603 326 1 -

Motif 5 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
DLTQVSEAAGPLVPAP O88854 340 0 -
DLTQVSEAAGPLVPPP GALS_RAT 341 0 -
DLLHMSEAAGALRPCP O43603 341 0 -