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PR00575

Identifier
OPSINREDGRN  [View Relations]  [View Alignment]  
Accession
PR00575
No. of Motifs
6
Creation Date
11-SEP-1996  (UPDATE 07-JUN-1999)
Title
Red/green-sensitive opsin signature
Database References
PRINTS; PR90007 7TM; PR90006 GPCRCLAN; PR00237 GPCRRHODOPSN
PRINTS; PR00238 OPSIN
INTERPRO; IPR000378
GCRDB; GCR_0012; GCR_0411; GCR_0990; GCR_0058; GCR_0060; GCR_0059

GCRDB; GCR_0730
Literature References
1. APPLEBURY, M.L. AND HARGRAVE, P.A.
Molecular biology of the visual pigments.
VISION RES. 26(12) 1881-1895 (1986).
 
2. FRYXELL, K.J. AND MEYEROWITZ, E.M.
The evolution of rhodopsins and neurotransmitter receptors.
J.MOL.EVOL. 33(4) 367-378 (1991).
 
3. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C.
Design of a discriminating fingerprint for G protein-coupled receptors.
PROTEIN ENG. 6(2) 167-176 (1993).
 
4. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C.
Fingerprinting G protein-coupled receptors.
PROTEIN ENG. 7(2) 195-203 (1994). 
 
5. WATSON, S. AND ARKINSTALL,
Opsins.
IN THE G PROTEIN-LINKED RECEPTOR FACTSBOOK, ACADEMIC PRESS, pp214-222.

Documentation
Opsins, the light-absorbing molecules that mediate vision [1,2], are
integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of G protein-coupled
receptors (GPCRs). The activating ligands of the different superfamily
members vary widely in structure and character, yet the proteins appear
faithfully to have conserved a basic structural framework, believed to
consist of 7 transmembrane (TM) helices. Although the sequences of these
proteins are very diverse, reflecting to some extent this broad range of
activating ligands, nevertheless, motifs have been identified in the TM
regions that are characteristic of virtually the entire superfamily [3,4].
Amongst the exceptions are the olfactory receptors, which cluster together
in a subfamily, which lacks significant matches with domains 2, 4 and 6.
Interestingly, the opsins also seem to be emerging as increasingly atypical
of the superfamily, clustering most strongly, in phylogenetic analyses, with
the olfactory receptors [4]. 
 
The visual pigments comprise an apoprotein (opsin), covalently linked to
the chromophore 11-cis-retinal. The covalent link is in the form of a
protonated Schiff base between the retinal and a lysine residue located in
TM domain 7. Vision is effected through the absorption of a photon by the
chromophore, which is isomerised to the all-trans form, promoting a
conformational change in the protein.
 
Opsins are the photoreceptors of animal retinas [5]: vertebrate rhodopsin
is found in rod cells and mediates scotopic vision; red, green and blue
opsins are found in cone cells and mediate photopic vision. Red-sensitive
opsin has an absorption maximum at 560nm; its deficiency results in 
protanopia colour blindness. Green-sensitive opsin has an absorption
maximum at 530nm; its deficiency results in deuteranopia colour blindness.
The ratio of green and red cones to rods is ~1:30 [5].
 
OPSINREDGRN is a 6-element fingerprint that provides a signature for red-
and green-sensitive opsins. The fingerprint was derived from an initial
alignment of 7 sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved sections
within either loop or N- and C-terminal regions, focusing on those areas
of the alignment that characterise the red- and green-sensitive opsins but
distinguish them from the rest of the rhodopsin-like superfamily - motif 1
lies at the N-terminus; motif 2 lies at the C-terminus of TM domain 2; 
motif 3 spans part of the second cytoplasmic loop, leading into the
N-terminus of TM domain 4; motif 4 lies in the second external loop; motif 5
spans the third external loop; and motif 6 lies at the C-terminus. Two
iterations on OWL28.1 were required to reach convergence, at which point a
true set comprising 11 sequences was identified. Several partial matches
were also found, all of which are fragments. 
 
An update on SPTR37_9f identified a true set of 17 sequences.
Summary Information
17 codes involving  6 elements
0 codes involving 5 elements
0 codes involving 4 elements
0 codes involving 3 elements
0 codes involving 2 elements
Composite Feature Index
6171717171717
5000000
4000000
3000000
2000000
123456
True Positives
O35476        O62860        OPSG_ASTFA    OPSG_GECGE    
OPSG_HUMAN OPSG_MOUSE OPSG_RABIT OPSH_ASTFA
OPSR_ANOCA OPSR_ASTFA OPSR_CAPHI OPSR_CARAU
OPSR_CHICK OPSR_HUMAN OPSR_ORYLA OPSR_XENLA
Q90226
Sequence Titles
O35476      GREEN OPSIN (GREEN-SENSITIVE OPSIN) - RATTUS NORVEGICUS (RAT). 
O62860 COLOR VISION OPSIN - OTOLEMUR GARNETTI, AND GALAGO SENEGALENSIS (NORTHERN LESSER BUSHBABY).
OPSG_ASTFA GREEN-SENSITIVE OPSIN 1 (GREEN CONE PHOTORECEPTOR PIGMENT) - ASTYANAX FASCIATUS (BLIND CAVE FISH) (ASTYANAX MEXICANUS).
OPSG_GECGE Green-sensitive opsin P521 (Green photoreceptor pigment) - Gecko gecko (Tokay gecko).
OPSG_HUMAN Green-sensitive opsin (Green cone photoreceptor pigment) - Homo sapiens (Human).
OPSG_MOUSE Green-sensitive opsin (Green cone photoreceptor pigment) (Medium wavelength-sensitive cone opsin) (M opsin) - Mus musculus (Mouse).
OPSG_RABIT Green-sensitive opsin (Green cone photoreceptor pigment) (Medium wavelength-sensitive cone opsin) - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit).
OPSH_ASTFA GREEN-SENSITIVE OPSIN 2 (GREEN CONE PHOTORECEPTOR PIGMENT) - ASTYANAX FASCIATUS (BLIND CAVE FISH) (ASTYANAX MEXICANUS).
OPSR_ANOCA Red-sensitive opsin (Red cone photoreceptor pigment) - Anolis carolinensis (Green anole) (American chameleon).
OPSR_ASTFA Red-sensitive opsin (Red cone photoreceptor pigment) - Astyanax fasciatus (Blind cave fish) (Astyanax mexicanus).
OPSR_CAPHI Red-sensitive opsin (Red cone photoreceptor pigment) - Capra hircus (Goat).
OPSR_CARAU Red-sensitive opsin (Red cone photoreceptor pigment) - Carassius auratus (Goldfish).
OPSR_CHICK Red-sensitive opsin (Red cone photoreceptor pigment) (Iodopsin) - Gallus gallus (Chicken).
OPSR_HUMAN Red-sensitive opsin (Red cone photoreceptor pigment) - Homo sapiens (Human).
OPSR_ORYLA Red-sensitive opsin (Red cone photoreceptor pigment) (KFH-R) - Oryzias latipes (Medaka fish) (Japanese ricefish).
OPSR_XENLA Red-sensitive opsin (Red cone photoreceptor pigment) - Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog).
Q90226 GREEN OPSIN - ASTYANAX FASCIATUS (BLIND CAVE FISH) (ASTYANAX MEXICANUS).
Scan History
OWL28_1    2  50   NSINGLE    
SPTR37_9f 2 18 NSINGLE
Initial Motifs
Motif 1  width=18
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
EDSTQSSIFTYTNSNSTR OPSG_HUMAN 20 20 -
EDSTQSSIFTYTNSNSTR OPSR_HUMAN 20 20 -
EDTTRDSVFTYTNSNNTR OPSR_CHICK 17 17 -
DDTTRDSLFTYTNSNNTR OPSR_ANOCA 23 23 -
DDTTREAAFTYTNSNNTK OPSR_ASTFA 17 17 -
EDTTRESAFVYTNANNTR OPSH_ASTFA 15 15 -
EETTRESAFVYTNANNTR OPSG_ASTFA 17 17 -
DDTTRGSVFTYTNTNNTR OPSG_GECGE 19 19 -

Motif 2 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
LAETVIASTISVVNQV OPSG_HUMAN 100 62 -
LAETVIASTISIVNQV OPSR_HUMAN 100 62 -
LGETVIASTISVINQI OPSR_CHICK 97 62 -
LGETVIASTISVINQI OPSR_ANOCA 103 62 -
LLETLLASTISVCNQF OPSR_ASTFA 97 62 -
LGETVLASTISVINQI OPSH_ASTFA 95 62 -
LGETVLASTISVFNQV OPSG_ASTFA 97 62 -
LVETLVASTISVFNQI OPSG_GECGE 99 62 -

Motif 3 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
VRFDAKLAIVGIAFS OPSG_HUMAN 162 46 -
VRFDAKLAIVGIAFS OPSR_HUMAN 162 46 -
IKFDGKLAVAGILFS OPSR_CHICK 159 46 -
VKFDAKLAVAGIVFS OPSR_ANOCA 165 46 -
VKFDGKMATAGIVFT OPSR_ASTFA 159 46 -
VKFDGKWAAGGIIFS OPSH_ASTFA 157 46 -
VKFDGKWAAGGIIFA OPSG_ASTFA 159 46 -
IKFDSKLAIIGIVFS OPSG_GECGE 161 46 -

Motif 4 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
DVFSGSSYPGVQSYM OPSG_HUMAN 206 29 -
DVFSGSSYPGVQSYM OPSR_HUMAN 206 29 -
DVFSGSSDPGVQSYM OPSR_CHICK 203 29 -
DVFSGSDDPGVLSYM OPSR_ANOCA 209 29 -
DVFSGSEDPGVQSYM OPSR_ASTFA 203 29 -
DVFSGSEDPGVASYM OPSH_ASTFA 201 29 -
DVFSGSEDPGVASYM OPSG_ASTFA 203 29 -
DVFSGSVELGCQSFM OPSG_GECGE 205 29 -

Motif 5 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
FACFAAANPGYPFHPL OPSG_HUMAN 287 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_HUMAN 287 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_CHICK 284 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_ANOCA 290 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_ASTFA 284 66 -
FATFSAVNPGYAWHPL OPSH_ASTFA 282 66 -
FATFSALNPGYAWHPL OPSG_ASTFA 284 66 -
FVSFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSG_GECGE 286 66 -

Motif 6 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
CILQLFGKKVDDG OPSG_HUMAN 332 29 -
CILQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_HUMAN 332 29 -
CILQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_CHICK 329 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_ANOCA 335 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_ASTFA 329 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVEDA OPSH_ASTFA 327 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVEDA OPSG_ASTFA 329 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVDDG OPSG_GECGE 331 29 -
Final Motifs
Motif 1  width=18
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
EDSTQSSIFTYTNSNSTR OPSG_HUMAN 20 20 -
EDSTQSSIFTYTNSNSTR OPSR_HUMAN 20 20 -
EDTTRDSVFTYTNSNNTR OPSR_CHICK 17 17 -
DDTTRDSLFTYTNSNNTR OPSR_ANOCA 23 23 -
EDSTQSSIFTYTNSNSTR O62860 20 20 -
EESTQGSIFTYTNSNSTR OPSR_CAPHI 20 20 -
EDSTQASIFTYTNSNSTR O35476 15 15 -
EDTTRGSAFTYTNSNHTR OPSR_ORYLA 17 17 -
EDSTQASIFTYTNSNSTR OPSG_RABIT 20 20 -
DETTRESMFVYTNSNNTR OPSR_CARAU 17 17 -
EDSTHASIFTYTNSNSTK OPSG_MOUSE 15 15 -
DDTTREAAFTYTNSNNTK OPSR_ASTFA 17 17 -
DDTTRSSVFTYTNSNNTR OPSR_XENLA 19 19 -
EDTTRESAFVYTNANNTR OPSH_ASTFA 15 15 -
EDTTRESAFVYTNANNTR Q90226 15 15 -
EETTRESAFVYTNANNTR OPSG_ASTFA 17 17 -
DDTTRGSVFTYTNTNNTR OPSG_GECGE 19 19 -

Motif 2 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
LAETVIASTISVVNQV OPSG_HUMAN 100 62 -
LAETVIASTISIVNQV OPSR_HUMAN 100 62 -
LGETVIASTISVINQI OPSR_CHICK 97 62 -
LGETVIASTISVINQI OPSR_ANOCA 103 62 -
LAETIIASTISVVNQI O62860 100 62 -
LAETIIASTISVVNQM OPSR_CAPHI 100 62 -
LAETIIASTISVVNQI O35476 95 62 -
LGETVFASTISVCNQF OPSR_ORYLA 97 62 -
LAETVIASTISVVNQF OPSG_RABIT 100 62 -
LAETLLASTISVTNQF OPSR_CARAU 97 62 -
LAETIIASTISVVNQI OPSG_MOUSE 95 62 -
LLETLLASTISVCNQF OPSR_ASTFA 97 62 -
LGETVIASTISVFNQI OPSR_XENLA 99 62 -
LGETVLASTISVINQI OPSH_ASTFA 95 62 -
LGETVLASTISVINQI Q90226 95 62 -
LGETVLASTISVFNQV OPSG_ASTFA 97 62 -
LVETLVASTISVFNQI OPSG_GECGE 99 62 -

Motif 3 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
VRFDAKLAIVGIAFS OPSG_HUMAN 162 46 -
VRFDAKLAIVGIAFS OPSR_HUMAN 162 46 -
IKFDGKLAVAGILFS OPSR_CHICK 159 46 -
VKFDAKLAVAGIVFS OPSR_ANOCA 165 46 -
VRFDAKLAIVGIAFS O62860 162 46 -
VRFDAKLATAGIAFS OPSR_CAPHI 162 46 -
VRFDAKLATVGIVFS O35476 157 46 -
VKFDAKWAIGGIVFS OPSR_ORYLA 159 46 -
VRFDAKLAIAGIAFS OPSG_RABIT 162 46 -
VKFDAKWASAGIIFS OPSR_CARAU 159 46 -
VRFDAKLATVGIVFS OPSG_MOUSE 157 46 -
VKFDGKMATAGIVFT OPSR_ASTFA 159 46 -
IKFDEKLAATGIIFS OPSR_XENLA 161 46 -
VKFDGKWAAGGIIFS OPSH_ASTFA 157 46 -
VKFDGKWAAGGIIFS Q90226 157 46 -
VKFDGKWAAGGIIFA OPSG_ASTFA 159 46 -
IKFDSKLAIIGIVFS OPSG_GECGE 161 46 -

Motif 4 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
DVFSGSSYPGVQSYM OPSG_HUMAN 206 29 -
DVFSGSSYPGVQSYM OPSR_HUMAN 206 29 -
DVFSGSSDPGVQSYM OPSR_CHICK 203 29 -
DVFSGSDDPGVLSYM OPSR_ANOCA 209 29 -
DVFSGSSYPGVQSYM O62860 206 29 -
DVFSGSSYPGVQSYM OPSR_CAPHI 206 29 -
DVFSGTSYPGVQSYM O35476 201 29 -
DVFSGSDDPGVQSYM OPSR_ORYLA 203 29 -
DVFSGTSYPGVQSYM OPSG_RABIT 206 29 -
DVFSGSEDPGVQSYM OPSR_CARAU 203 29 -
DVFSGTSYPGVQSYM OPSG_MOUSE 201 29 -
DVFSGSEDPGVQSYM OPSR_ASTFA 203 29 -
DVFSGSSDPGVQSYM OPSR_XENLA 205 29 -
DVFSGSEDPGVASYM OPSH_ASTFA 201 29 -
DVFSGSEDPGVASYM Q90226 201 29 -
DVFSGSEDPGVASYM OPSG_ASTFA 203 29 -
DVFSGSVELGCQSFM OPSG_GECGE 205 29 -

Motif 5 width=16
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
FACFAAANPGYPFHPL OPSG_HUMAN 287 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_HUMAN 287 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_CHICK 284 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_ANOCA 290 66 -
FACFAASHPGYAFHPL O62860 287 66 -
FACFAAAHPGYAFHPL OPSR_CAPHI 287 66 -
FACFATAHPGYAFHPL O35476 282 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_ORYLA 284 66 -
FACFATAHPGYSFHPL OPSG_RABIT 287 66 -
CACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_CARAU 284 66 -
FACFATAHPGYAFHPL OPSG_MOUSE 282 66 -
FACFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSR_ASTFA 284 66 -
FACFAAFSPGYSFHPL OPSR_XENLA 286 66 -
FATFSAVNPGYAWHPL OPSH_ASTFA 282 66 -
FATFSAVNPGYAWHPL Q90226 282 66 -
FATFSALNPGYAWHPL OPSG_ASTFA 284 66 -
FVSFAAANPGYAFHPL OPSG_GECGE 286 66 -

Motif 6 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
CILQLFGKKVDDG OPSG_HUMAN 332 29 -
CILQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_HUMAN 332 29 -
CILQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_CHICK 329 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_ANOCA 335 29 -
CILQLFGKKVDDS O62860 332 29 -
CILQLFGKKVDDS OPSR_CAPHI 332 29 -
CILQLFGKKVDDS O35476 327 29 -
CIMQLFGKQVDDG OPSR_ORYLA 329 29 -
CILQLFGKKVEDS OPSG_RABIT 332 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_CARAU 329 29 -
CILHLFGKKVDDS OPSG_MOUSE 327 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVDDG OPSR_ASTFA 329 29 -
CIYQMFGKKVDDG OPSR_XENLA 331 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVEDA OPSH_ASTFA 327 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVEDA Q90226 327 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVEDA OPSG_ASTFA 329 29 -
CIMQLFGKKVDDG OPSG_GECGE 331 29 -