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PR00574

Identifier
OPSINBLUE  [View Relations]  [View Alignment]  
Accession
PR00574
No. of Motifs
6
Creation Date
11-SEP-1996  (UPDATE 07-JUN-1999)
Title
Blue-sensitive opsin signature
Database References
PRINTS; PR90007 7TM; PR90006 GPCRCLAN; PR00237 GPCRRHODOPSN
PRINTS; PR00238 OPSIN
INTERPRO; IPR001521
GCRDB; GCR_0057; GCR_0410; GCR_0553; GCR_0408
Literature References
1. APPLEBURY, M.L. AND HARGRAVE, P.A.
Molecular biology of the visual pigments.
VISION RES. 26(12) 1881-1895 (1986).
 
2. FRYXELL, K.J. AND MEYEROWITZ, E.M.
The evolution of rhodopsins and neurotransmitter receptors.
J.MOL.EVOL. 33(4) 367-378 (1991).
 
3. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C.
Design of a discriminating fingerprint for G protein-coupled receptors.
PROTEIN ENG. 6(2) 167-176 (1993).
 
4. ATTWOOD, T.K. AND FINDLAY, J.B.C.
Fingerprinting G protein-coupled receptors.
PROTEIN ENG. 7(2) 195-203 (1994). 
 
5. WATSON, S. AND ARKINSTALL,
Opsins.
IN THE G PROTEIN-LINKED RECEPTOR FACTSBOOK, ACADEMIC PRESS, pp214-222.

Documentation
Opsins, the light-absorbing molecules that mediate vision [1,2], are
integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of G protein-coupled
receptors (GPCRs). The activating ligands of the different superfamily
members vary widely in structure and character, yet the proteins appear
faithfully to have conserved a basic structural framework, believed to
consist of 7 transmembrane (TM) helices. Although the sequences of these
proteins are very diverse, reflecting to some extent this broad range of
activating ligands, nevertheless, motifs have been identified in the TM
regions that are characteristic of virtually the entire superfamily [3,4].
Amongst the exceptions are the olfactory receptors, which cluster together
in a subfamily, which lacks significant matches with domains 2, 4 and 6.
Interestingly, the opsins also seem to be emerging as increasingly atypical
of the superfamily, clustering most strongly, in phylogenetic analyses, with
the olfactory receptors [4]. 
 
The visual pigments comprise an apoprotein (opsin), covalently linked to
the chromophore 11-cis-retinal. The covalent link is in the form of a
protonated Schiff base between the retinal and a lysine residue located in
TM domain 7. Vision is effected through the absorption of a photon by the
chromophore, which is isomerised to the all-trans form, promoting a
conformational change in the protein.
 
Opsins are the photoreceptors of animal retinas [5]: vertebrate rhodopsin
is found in rod cells and mediates scotopic vision; red, green and blue
opsins are found in cone cells and mediate photopic vision. Blue-sensitive
opsin has an absorption maximum at 420nm. The ratio of blue cones to rods
is ~1:200 [5]. Deficiency in blue opsin results in tritanopia colour
blindness.
 
OPSINBLUE is a 6-element fingerprint that provides a signature for blue-
sensitive opsins. The fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment
of 8 sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved sections within either
loop or N- and C-terminal regions, focusing on those areas of the alignment
that characterise the blue-sensitive opsins but distinguish them from the
rest of the rhodopsin-like superfamily - motifs 1 and 2 lie at the
N-terminus; motif 3 spans the second external loop; motif 4 spans the
N-terminal half of TM domain 5; motif 5 spans the third external loop; and
motif 6 lies at the C-terminus. A single iteration on OWL28.1 was required
to reach convergence, no further sequences being identified beyond the
starting set. Several partial matches were also found, all of which are
closely related green-sensitive opsins or rhodopsins. 
 
An update on SPTR37_9f identified a true set of 13 sequences, and 2
partial matches.
Summary Information
  13 codes involving  6 elements
0 codes involving 5 elements
1 codes involving 4 elements
0 codes involving 3 elements
1 codes involving 2 elements
Composite Feature Index
6131313131313
5000000
4011110
3000000
2010001
123456
True Positives
O46554        O57605        O70363        OPSB_ASTFA    
OPSB_BOVIN OPSB_CARAU OPSB_CHICK OPSB_HUMAN
OPSB_MOUSE OPSB_RAT OPSB_SAIBB OPSV_CHICK
OPSV_XENLA
True Positive Partials
Codes involving 4 elements
OPSB_ORYLA
Codes involving 2 elements
OPSV_ORYLA
Sequence Titles
O46554      BLUE OPSIN - CEBUS OLIVACEUS (WEEPER CAPUCHIN MONKEY). 
O57605 UV-SENSITIVE CONE OPSIN - MELOPSITTACUS UNDULATUS (BUDGERIGAR).
O70363 BLUE CONE OPSIN PIGMENT - RATTUS NORVEGICUS (RAT).
OPSB_ASTFA Blue-sensitive opsin (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) - Astyanax fasciatus (Blind cave fish) (Astyanax mexicanus).
OPSB_BOVIN Blue-sensitive opsin (BOP) (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) - Bos taurus (Bovine).
OPSB_CARAU Blue-sensitive opsin (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) - Carassius auratus (Goldfish).
OPSB_CHICK Blue-sensitive opsin (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) - Gallus gallus (Chicken).
OPSB_HUMAN Blue-sensitive opsin (BOP) (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) - Homo sapiens (Human).
OPSB_MOUSE Blue-sensitive opsin (BOP) (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) (Short wavelength-sensitive cone opsin) (S opsin) - Mus musculus (Mouse).
OPSB_RAT Blue-sensitive opsin (BOP) (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) (Short wavelength-sensitive cone opsin) (S opsin) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat).
OPSB_SAIBB Blue-sensitive opsin (BOP) (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) - Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis (Bolivian squirrel monkey).
OPSV_CHICK Violet-sensitive opsin (Violet cone photoreceptor pigment) (Violet cone opsin) - Gallus gallus (Chicken).
OPSV_XENLA Violet-sensitive opsin (Violet cone photoreceptor pigment) (Violet cone opsin) - Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog).

OPSB_ORYLA Blue-sensitive opsin (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) (KFH-B) - Oryzias latipes (Medaka fish) (Japanese ricefish).

OPSV_ORYLA Putative violet-sensitive opsin (Violet cone photoreceptor pigment) (KFH-V) - Oryzias latipes (Medaka fish) (Japanese ricefish).
Scan History
OWL28_1    1  50   NSINGLE    
SPTR37_9f 2 33 NSINGLE
Initial Motifs
Motif 1  width=9
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
DLPEDFYIP OPSB_CHICK 9 9 -
EFHEDFYIP OPSB_CARAU 6 6 -
SSDDDFYLF OPSV_CHICK 2 2 -
MSEEEFYLF OPSB_HUMAN 4 4 -
LEEEDFYLF XLU23463 2 2 -
SGEDDFYLF B54679 2 2 -
SEEEEFLLF A54679 5 5 -
EFQEDFYIP S39028 7 7 -

Motif 2 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
QNISSVGPWDGPQ B54679 11 0 -
KNISLVGPWDGPQ A54679 14 0 -
KNVSNVSPFDGPQ XLU23463 11 0 -
NNITALSPFLVPQ S39028 21 5 -
KNISSVGPWDGPQ OPSB_HUMAN 13 0 -
TNGSVPGPWDGPQ OPSV_CHICK 11 0 -
NNLSAYSPFLVPQ OPSB_CARAU 20 5 -
PNITALSPFLVPQ OPSB_CHICK 23 5 -

Motif 3 width=11
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
TTENKYNNESY S39028 198 164 -
TTDNKWHNESY OPSB_CHICK 200 164 -
TTNNKYNNESY OPSB_CARAU 197 164 -
TVGTKYRSEYY OPSV_CHICK 188 164 -
TVGTKYRSESY OPSB_HUMAN 190 164 -
TVGTKYYSEYY A54679 191 164 -
TVGTKYRSEYY XLU23463 188 164 -
TVGTKYRSEYY B54679 188 164 -

Motif 4 width=12
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
YVMFLFCFCFGF S39028 208 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFIV OPSB_HUMAN 200 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFIV OPSV_CHICK 198 -1 -
YVMFLFCFCFAV OPSB_CARAU 207 -1 -
YVLFLFTFCFGV OPSB_CHICK 210 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCYIV A54679 201 -1 -
YTWFIFIFCFVI XLU23463 198 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFII B54679 198 -1 -

Motif 5 width=20
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
AFAMYMVNNRNHGLDLRLVT OPSB_HUMAN 267 55 -
SFALWVVFNRGQSFDLRLGT S39028 275 55 -
ALAMYMVNNRNHGLDLRLVT B54679 265 55 -
AMAMYMVTNRNHGLDLRLVT XLU23463 265 55 -
ALAMYMVNNRDHGLDLRLVT OPSV_CHICK 265 55 -
SFSLWIVSHRGEEFDLRMAT OPSB_CARAU 274 55 -
AFALWVVTHRGRSFEVGLAS OPSB_CHICK 277 55 -
ALAMYIVNNRNHGVDLRLVT A54679 268 55 -

Motif 6 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
LKLLFCGRSPFGDDE OPSB_CHICK 325 28 -
MKLIFCGKSPFGDDE S39028 323 28 -
ILEMVCRKPMADESD B54679 312 27 -
IMETVCGRPMSDDSS XLU23463 312 27 -
IMKMVCGKAMTDESD OPSB_HUMAN 314 27 -
IMETVCGKPLTDDSD OPSV_CHICK 312 27 -
MMKMVCGKNIEEDEA OPSB_CARAU 321 27 -
IMEMVCGKPMTDESE A54679 315 27 -
Final Motifs
Motif 1  width=9
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
SEEEEFYLF O46554 5 5 -
PEEEEFYLF OPSB_SAIBB 5 5 -
SGEEEFYLF O57605 2 2 -
MSEEEFYLF OPSB_HUMAN 4 4 -
SGEDEFYLF O70363 2 2 -
SGEDDFYLF OPSB_MOUSE 2 2 -
SGEXEFYLF OPSB_RAT 2 2 -
SEEEEFLLF OPSB_BOVIN 5 5 -
SSDDDFYLF OPSV_CHICK 2 2 -
LEEEDFYLF OPSV_XENLA 2 2 -
EFHEDFYIP OPSB_CARAU 6 6 -
EFQEDFYIP OPSB_ASTFA 7 7 -
DLPEDFYIP OPSB_CHICK 9 9 -

Motif 2 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
KNISSVGPWDGPQ O46554 14 0 -
KNISSVGPWDGPQ OPSB_SAIBB 14 0 -
KNGSIGGPWDGPQ O57605 11 0 -
KNISSVGPWDGPQ OPSB_HUMAN 13 0 -
QNISSVGPWDGPQ O70363 11 0 -
QNISSVGPWDGPQ OPSB_MOUSE 11 0 -
QNISSVGPWDGPQ OPSB_RAT 11 0 -
KNISLVGPWDGPQ OPSB_BOVIN 14 0 -
TNGSVPGPWDGPQ OPSV_CHICK 11 0 -
KNVSNVSPFDGPQ OPSV_XENLA 11 0 -
NNLSAYSPFLVPQ OPSB_CARAU 20 5 -
NNITALSPFLVPQ OPSB_ASTFA 21 5 -
PNITALSPFLVPQ OPSB_CHICK 23 5 -

Motif 3 width=11
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
TVGTKYRSEYY O46554 191 164 -
TVGTKYRSEYY OPSB_SAIBB 191 164 -
TVGTKYRSEYY O57605 188 164 -
TVGTKYRSESY OPSB_HUMAN 190 164 -
TVGTKYRSEHY O70363 188 164 -
TVGTKYRSEYY OPSB_MOUSE 188 164 -
TVGTKYRSEHY OPSB_RAT 188 164 -
TVGTKYYSEYY OPSB_BOVIN 191 164 -
TVGTKYRSEYY OPSV_CHICK 188 164 -
TVGTKYRSEYY OPSV_XENLA 188 164 -
TTNNKYNNESY OPSB_CARAU 197 164 -
TTENKYNNESY OPSB_ASTFA 198 164 -
TTDNKWHNESY OPSB_CHICK 200 164 -

Motif 4 width=12
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
YTWFLFIFCFIV O46554 201 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFIV OPSB_SAIBB 201 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFIV O57605 198 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFIV OPSB_HUMAN 200 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFII O70363 198 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFII OPSB_MOUSE 198 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFII OPSB_RAT 198 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCYIV OPSB_BOVIN 201 -1 -
YTWFLFIFCFIV OPSV_CHICK 198 -1 -
YTWFIFIFCFVI OPSV_XENLA 198 -1 -
YVMFLFCFCFAV OPSB_CARAU 207 -1 -
YVMFLFCFCFGF OPSB_ASTFA 208 -1 -
YVLFLFTFCFGV OPSB_CHICK 210 -1 -

Motif 5 width=20
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
ALAMYMVNNRNHGLDLRLVT O46554 268 55 -
ALAMYMVNNRNHGLDLRLVS OPSB_SAIBB 268 55 -
ALAMYMVNNREHGIDLRLVT O57605 265 55 -
AFAMYMVNNRNHGLDLRLVT OPSB_HUMAN 267 55 -
ALAMYMVNNRNHGLDLRLVT O70363 265 55 -
ALAMYMVNNRNHGLDLRLVT OPSB_MOUSE 265 55 -
ALAMYMVNNRNHGLYLRLVT OPSB_RAT 265 55 -
ALAMYIVNNRNHGVDLRLVT OPSB_BOVIN 268 55 -
ALAMYMVNNRDHGLDLRLVT OPSV_CHICK 265 55 -
AMAMYMVTNRNHGLDLRLVT OPSV_XENLA 265 55 -
SFSLWIVSHRGEEFDLRMAT OPSB_CARAU 274 55 -
SFALWVVFNRGQSFDLRLGT OPSB_ASTFA 275 55 -
AFALWVVTHRGRSFEVGLAS OPSB_CHICK 277 55 -

Motif 6 width=15
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
IMEMVCGKAMTDESD O46554 315 27 -
IMEMVCGKAMTDESD OPSB_SAIBB 315 27 -
IMEMVCGKPMTDDSD O57605 312 27 -
IMKMVCGKAMTDESD OPSB_HUMAN 314 27 -
ILEMVCRKPMTDESD O70363 312 27 -
ILEMVCRKPMADESD OPSB_MOUSE 312 27 -
ILEMVCRKPMTDESD OPSB_RAT 312 27 -
IMEMVCGKPMTDESE OPSB_BOVIN 315 27 -
IMETVCGKPLTDDSD OPSV_CHICK 312 27 -
IMETVCGRPMSDDSS OPSV_XENLA 312 27 -
MMKMVCGKNIEEDEA OPSB_CARAU 321 27 -
MKLIFCGKSPFGDDE OPSB_ASTFA 323 28 -
LKLLFCGRSPFGDDE OPSB_CHICK 325 28 -