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PR00273

Identifier
GALANIN  [View Relations]  [View Alignment]  
Accession
PR00273
No. of Motifs
2
Creation Date
19-DEC-1993  (UPDATE 27-JUN-1999)
Title
Galanin signature
Database References

PROSITE; PS00861 GALANIN
BLOCKS; BL00861
PFAM; PF01296 Galanin
INTERPRO; IPR001600
Literature References
1. BERSANI, M., JOHNSEN, A.H., HOJRUP, P., DUNNING, B.E., ANDREASEN, J.J.
AND HOLST, J.J.
Human galanin - Primary structure and identification of 2 molecular forms.
FEBS LETT. 283(2) 189-194 (1991).
 
2. KAPLAN, L.M., SPINDEL, E.R., ISSELBACHER, K.J. AND CHIN, W.W.
Tissue-specific expression of the rat galanin gene.
PROC.NATL.ACAD.SCI.U.S.A. 85(4) 1065-1069 (1988).

Documentation
Galanin is a 29 amino acid peptide hormone that controls various biological
activities [1]. Galanin-like immuno-reactivity has been found in the
central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals, with high concentrations
demonstrated in discrete regions of the central nervous system, including
the median eminence, hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, septum, neuro-
intermediate lobe of the pituitary, and the spinal cord. Its localisation
within neurosecretory granules suggests that galanin may function as a
neurotransmitter, and it has been shown to coexist with a variety of other
peptide and amine neurotransmitters within individual neurons [2].
 
Although the precise physiological role of galanin is uncertain, it has a
number of pharmacological properties: it stimulates food intake, when 
injected into the third ventricle of rats; it increases levels of plasma
growth hormone and prolactin, and decreases dopamine levels in the median
eminence [2]; and infusion into humans results in hyperglycemia and glucose
intolerance, and inhibits pancreatic release of insulin, somatostatin and 
pancreatic peptide. Galanin also modulates smooth muscle contractility
within the gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary tracts, all such activities
suggesting that the hormone may play an important role in the nervous
modulation of endocrine and smooth muscle function [2].
 
GALANIN is a 2-element fingerprint that provides a signature for galanins.
The fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment of 4 sequences: the
motifs span virtually the full alignment length, motif 1 including the
region encoded by PROSITE pattern GALANIN (PS00861). Two iterations on
OWL22.1 were required to reach convergence, at which point a true set
comprising 7 sequences was identified.
 
An update on SPTR37_9f identified a true set of 11 sequences.
Summary Information
11 codes involving  2 elements
Composite Feature Index
21111
12
True Positives
GALA_ALLMI    GALA_AMICA    GALA_BOVIN    GALA_CHICK    
GALA_HUMAN GALA_MOUSE GALA_ONCMY GALA_PIG
GALA_RANRI GALA_RAT GALA_SHEEP
Sequence Titles
GALA_ALLMI  GALANIN - ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS (AMERICAN ALLIGATOR). 
GALA_AMICA GALANIN - AMIA CALVA (BOWFIN).
GALA_BOVIN GALANIN PRECURSOR - BOS TAURUS (BOVINE).
GALA_CHICK GALANIN - GALLUS GALLUS (CHICKEN).
GALA_HUMAN GALANIN PRECURSOR - HOMO SAPIENS (HUMAN).
GALA_MOUSE GALANIN PRECURSOR - MUS MUSCULUS (MOUSE).
GALA_ONCMY GALANIN - ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS (RAINBOW TROUT) (SALMO GAIRDNERI).
GALA_PIG GALANIN PRECURSOR - SUS SCROFA (PIG).
GALA_RANRI GALANIN - RANA RIDIBUNDA (LAUGHING FROG) (MARSH FROG).
GALA_RAT GALANIN PRECURSOR - RATTUS NORVEGICUS (RAT).
GALA_SHEEP GALANIN - OVIS ARIES (SHEEP).
Scan History
OWL22_0    2  100  NSINGLE    
OWL26_0 1 100 NSINGLE
SPTR37_9f 2 200 NSINGLE
Initial Motifs
Motif 1  width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_RAT 34 34 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_CHICK 2 2 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_BOVIN 34 34 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_HUMAN 18 18 -

Motif 2 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
AIDNHRSFSDKHG GALA_RAT 47 0 -
AVDNHRSFNDKHG GALA_CHICK 15 0 -
ALDSHRSFQDKHG GALA_BOVIN 47 0 -
AVGNHRSFSDKNG GALA_HUMAN 31 0 -
Final Motifs
Motif 1  width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_MOUSE 34 34 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_RAT 34 34 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_RANRI 2 2 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_SHEEP 2 2 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_CHICK 2 2 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_ALLMI 2 2 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_PIG 34 34 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_AMICA 2 2 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_BOVIN 34 34 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_HUMAN 18 18 -
WTLNSAGYLLGPH GALA_ONCMY 2 2 -

Motif 2 width=13
Element Seqn Id St Int Rpt
AIDNHRSFSDKHG GALA_MOUSE 47 0 -
AIDNHRSFSDKHG GALA_RAT 47 0 -
AIDNHRSFNDKHG GALA_RANRI 15 0 -
AIDNHRSFHDKHG GALA_SHEEP 15 0 -
AVDNHRSFNDKHG GALA_CHICK 15 0 -
AIDNHRSFNEKHG GALA_ALLMI 15 0 -
AIDNHRSFHDKYG GALA_PIG 47 0 -
AVDNHRSLNDKHG GALA_AMICA 15 0 -
ALDSHRSFQDKHG GALA_BOVIN 47 0 -
AVGNHRSFSDKNG GALA_HUMAN 31 0 -
GIDGHRTLSDKHG GALA_ONCMY 15 0 -